The Late Modern History of Europe comprises a period of maximum social, political and economic tensions. The break with the Old Regime and the expansion of capitalism and imperialism marked the nineteenth century. The tragedies caused by the two world wars are the protagonists of the history of the 20th century. From the late eighteenth century, the English industrial revolution and the French revolution, changed the economic, social and political structures of Europe. The absolute monarchies were replaced by liberal-constitutional regimes in which the national sovereignty resided in the town, represented in the Parliaments (elected with suffrages still very limited). The Old regime, suppressed in almost all of Europe during the nineteenth century, replaced the old structures of power for new liberal states where the subjects became citizens and the expansion of great capitalism took place. But the imperialist anxieties of the 19th century led to the disasters of the 20th century, with the outbreak of the First World War. The victory of the Allied Powers embodied in the Treaty of Versailles opened wounds to the losers, which, as in the case of Germany, were the germ because of the birth of totalitarian ideologies, which manifested their darkest side in the murder of millions of people, mainly Jews, to the camps of Nazi extermination and to a new devastating global war for all Europe. From that war the foundations will be born for the construction of a united Europe and in peace.
Articles of the course: Late modern History in Europe (19th and 20th Centuries)
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