Category: Uncategorized

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The Portuguese discoveries

Portugal became the first European kingdom to develop an overseas expansion in the process of territorial expansion.
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Stalinism in the inter-war USSR

Lenin’s death in 1924 brought to power Joseph Stalin and the imposition of its Marxism-Leninism version as the official ideology in the USSR.
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Renaissance and Humanism in Europe

Humanism was a movement for cultural renewal, which emerged in Italy in the 14th century and spread throughout Europe in the 15th and 16th centuries.
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Cities and Countryside in 16th-century Europe

In 16th century Europe, only 2% of the population lived in cities of more than 40,000 inhabitants. Major urban centres began to emerge on an eminently rural continent.
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16th century economy: the colonial expansion, agriculture and trade

The Early Modern period saw no major changes in the economic and social structures inherited from the Late Middle Ages.
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The Western Schism (1378-1417)

Between 1378 and 1417, the Church experienced a period of crisis that saw up to three rival popes vying for recognition and legitimacy in Christendom.
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Peasant revolts and urban conflicts in the Late Middle Ages

In the Lower Middle Ages, the crisis caused unrest and revolts throughout Europe, especially in the 14th century, when peasant revolts and social unrest spread to the continent’s main cities.
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Economic and social effects of the crisis of the Late Middle Ages

The crisis of poor harvests at the beginning of the 14th century, together with the arrival of the Black Death, led to the crisis of the late Middle Ages. It lasted until the 15th century.
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The crisis of the Late Middle Ages

Between the late 13th and the 14th century, Europe experienced a period of overall crisis. The first symptoms of this decline were poor harvests, plague epidemics and wars.
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Early modern Europe: an introduction

The fall of Constantinople and the discovery of America are considered the two seminal events that serve to mark the beginning of the Early modern in Europe.