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The historical period known as the Ancient Age is the period between the birth of writing and the fall of the Roman Empire in 476. It is the first period historically. It includes a very long period and also in the territorial extension, because it is based on the areas of Mesopotamia, Egypt, the Greek and Hellenistic world to end up in the immense Roman Empire. It can be characterized as the era of the birth of cities, social specialization, the birth of most of today's sciences and arts and a huge demographic expansion that led to the creation of great empires. It must not be forgotten that in the same dates a town can still live in prehistory (or protohistory) and another has evolved a lot. The most abundant political regime is the monarchy. Commerce arises as such, with the emergence of the currency and the great routes of exchange.
The medieval or medieval age is the intermediate period of the history of Europe between the ancient age and the modern age. Its beginning and end are marked by two major events: the beginning of the Middle Ages in the 5th century with the fall of the Roman Empire, in 476, and the end in the 15th century with the fall of Constantinople, the 1453, or with the discovery of America in 1492. The name of this period was put by the Renaissance humanists as a derogatory term, because they considered the Middle Ages a dark period after one of the moments of greater cultural splendour, the classical era.
The Early Modern Age, following the traditional chronological division, comprises the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. This period is identified by a specific political or social order or regime (the Old Regime), characterized by the jurisdictional and patrimonial conception of sovereignty and the inequality of men and women before the law; His system of values and beliefs had a widely accepted Christian foundation, and manifested an almost absolute respect towards the tradition and authority of Greco-Roman classics; and it was based on technical resources and forms of organization of production and work that were not radically different from the medieval ones.
The Late Modern History of Europe comprises a period of maximum social, political and economic tensions. The break with the Old Regime and the expansion of capitalism and imperialism marked the nineteenth century. The tragedies caused by the two world wars are the protagonists of the history of the 20th century. From the late eighteenth century, the English industrial revolution and the French Revolution, changed the economic, social and political structures of Europe. The absolute monarchies were replaced by liberal-constitutional regimes in which the national sovereignty resided in the town, represented in the Parliaments (elected with suffrages still very limited). The Old regime, suppressed in almost all of Europe during the nineteenth century, replaced the old structures of power for new liberal states where the subjects became citizens and the expansion of great capitalism took place. But the imperialist anxieties of the 19th century led to the disasters of the 20th century, with the outbreak of the First World War. The victory of the Allied Powers embodied in the Treaty of Versailles opened wounds to the losers, which, as in the case of Germany, were the germ because of the birth of totalitarian ideologies, which manifested their darkest side in the murder of millions of people, mainly Jews, to the camps of Nazi extermination and to a new devastating global war for all Europe. From that war the foundations will be born for the construction of a united Europe and in peace.
World War II had major consequences in the world. Geopolitical alliances were redrawn and a block division was established for many decades where the two winning allies of the war (United States and the Soviet Union) were confronted. The United States and the Soviet Union represented two totally different worlds. The Americans, representatives of the free market economy, headed the NATO block, where there were the main European countries. The Soviet Union, represented the communist system and gathered within the Warsaw Pact the countries that had remained under its controlling orbit, Eastern Europe. This division in two blocks, started in 1947, lasted until 1991 and established the bases of a historical stage that has been called "the Cold War", a tactical confrontation between the USSR and the United States, with their respective allies. It was an undeclared confrontation, without military offensives, based on the mutual threat (including the development of atomic bombs) and in the attempt to expand the respective areas of influence. In this course of Cold War History, we propose a careful look at the political and economic development of Western countries (allies of the United States of America) from the end of World War II at the beginning of the 90s of the 20th century.
Approaching the study of the ancient world of Catalonia, in the roots of Catalonia, means knowing and understanding the societies of antiquity that were developed in the area that we currently call Catalonia. A very broad chronological period in which different societies settled in this territory and where much of the most important ancient civilizations played a leading role.
The vast historical period of the Middle Ages of Catalonia includes a long and diverse stage. Following the traditional canons, the Middle Age begins in 417 with the disappearance of the Roman Empire of the West and ends in 1492 with the discovery of America. The political vacuum left by the Roman Empire was occupied, on the Iberian Peninsula by the Visigoth kingdom. It was then that Barcino, now Barcelona, became his episcopal headquarters and acquired some notoriety. But the Arab invasion of the peninsula led to a period of nearly 100 years of Muslim rule, until Charlemagne organized conquest campaigns in Girona and Barcelona. A series of counties of obedience to the Carolingian Empire were established, but over time they were detached from the Franks and became independent de facto. As of that moment, the Catalan counties progressively achieve their own legal personality, associated with a specific geographic context. From the 11th to 12th centuries the splendour of Medieval Catalonia began and the centuries of maximum territorial expansion for the Mediterranean.
In the respective kingdoms that made up the former Crown of Aragon, including the Prince of Catalonia, the Habsburg dynasty reigned, the first of which was Emperor Charles V. The Principality of Catalonia maintained all its own institutions, until the Nueva Planta Decrees in 1714. However, a part of the territory was amputated: 1659, by the Treaty of the Pyrenees, the regions of Roussillon, Capcir, Conflent and Vallespir and a part of Cerdanya were given to the kingdom of France.
The 19th century was characterized by profound changes in the country's political, economic and social system. Politically, the foundations of the new liberal state were created. It was the century of the country's industrialization, especially in the textile sector.
This is a Course on the History of Catalonia in the 20th century with open and free access, which explores the main events and events that took place throughout the 20th century in Catalonia. The article collection starts with the establishment of the Bourbon Restoration regime in 1874 and it is until the restoration of the autonomous regime and the first elections to Parliament in 1980. It is a period full of historic events of the first magnitude by the country: the first steps of political Catalanism, the birth of workers as an organized social movement that will lead to mobilize thousands of workers, the attainment of political autonomy during the Second Republic, the outbreak of the civil war and the dictatorship and finally the restoration of democracy and the government of the Generalitat.
A tour of 30 chapters for the history of Catalonia, from its origins to the present. Let's review the most significant events in the history of this country, a country of passage and border for many civilizations that have been established over the centuries.
The history of Spain in the Early Modern Age comprises a period that begins with the reign of the Catholic Monarchs and the discovery of America (1492) and ends with the abdication of Charles IV and the outbreak of the War of the Independence in 1808. The conquest and colonization of America was one of the most important events of the Hispanic monarchy, which managed to control a great empire in both European and American lands. But the internal problems of the monarchy and the great expenses for the maintenance of the Empire brought to Spain numerous wars and economic failures during the modern age. The Old Regime, which was maintained throughout this period, combined with an Inquisition of unique characteristics in Europe and absolutism that was especially noted with the arrival of the Bourbons dynasty, are the main features of this period.
The history of Spain in the nineteenth century began following the path marked by the monarchs of the Bourbon dynasty: Philip V, Ferdinand VI, Charles III and Charles IV. Spain remained within the old schemes of the Old Regime and the absolutist government. But everything started to shake when the French Revolution broke out in the neighbouring country, which ruined all the plans of Charles IV. The invasion of the troops of Napoleon in the country and the proclamation of a new king, Joseph I Bonaparte, who did not count on the support of a part of the elites and the popular classes, took the country to the War of Independence. The Old Regime resisted disappearing but the first liberal revolution in Spain swept it at least for some years in the country. With the Restoration of absolutism on the part of King Ferdinand VII in 1814 the hopes of liberals to modernize the country were truncated.
The history of Spain in the twentieth century begins with the loss of the last colonies that still maintained the country (Cuba, the Philippines and Puerto Rico) at a time when the European powers were distributed half the world. Politically Spain continues in the period of the Restoration, under the constitution of 1876, and the reign of Alfonso XIII (to the throne from 1886). The Constitution of 1876 will remain in force until 1931, despite being suspended during the dictatorship of Primo de Rivera.
The events of 1917 were a political process that culminated with the end of the tsarist system and the establishment of a Soviet socialist republic. The revolution was divided into two phases. The first, "the February revolution", in which Tsar Nicholas II was overthrown. In the second, "October Revolution", it was a revolution of a socialist type in which the Soviets (controlled mainly by the Bolshevik party) took power.
The Industrial Revolution gave rise to the appearance of large masses of workers whose living conditions were very poor. The development of the labor movement coincided with the formulation of a series of political theories that advocated the emancipation of the proletariat and the transformation of society.
The nineteenth century signifies the end of the great systems and the emergence of a plurality of philosophical movements of very different signs (positivism, utilitarianism, Marxism, vitalism, historicism) that suppose a criticism, a revision and a reaction against the speculative vision and systematics of philosophy that had reached its maximum expression in Hegel's absolute idealism.
The European colonization of the Americas describes the history of the establishment of control of the American continent by most of the naval powers of Western Europe from the 16th century.
The history of Spain is a compendium of influences from the different cultures that have inhabited the territory. The first settlers of the Peninsula were Celts and Iberians.
The French Revolution (1789 - 1799) is considered the event that marked the arrival of a new historical period, that of the contemporary Age. France was at the end of the 18th century, as most of Europe, ruled by an absolutist monarchy. With structures typically of the Old Regime, characterized by the maintenance of the old system of medieval origin of the estate division of society and a property of the land of feudal type. In a society divided between privileged and non-privileged classes, there are a series of revolts that led to the demolition of the system of the Old Regime and the old absolutist Bourbon monarchy.
The nation was founded by thirteen colonies of Great Britain located on the Atlantic coast. They proclaimed themselves states and made the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776. The rebellious states defeated Great Britain in the war, America's first successful colonial war of independence. The Philadelphia Convention adopted the current U.S. Constitution on September 17, 1787; ratification the following year made the states part of a single republic. The Bill of Rights of the U.S. Constitution, which contains ten amendments on the rights and freedoms of citizens, was ratified in 1791.